QUBO Instance Examples

Sample QUBO Instances

  • QUBO instances are the Upper Triangular Version.

  • Files are .cvs.gz and .utm.gz (File format).

  • Penalty for TSP and QAP are large constant value to satisfy one-hot encoding of QUBO instances. Penalty value is selected so that optimal solutions are one-hot and those of TSP/QAP are obtained correctly.

Random Instances

Randomly generated QUBO Instances. All elements are selected from -1000 to 1000 (excluding 0) independently and uniformly at random.


Converted from WK2000_1.rud, a randomly generated complete graph with weight -1/+1.

Converted from randomly generated complete graphs. All edge weights are selected from -1000 to +1000 (excluding 0) independently and uniformly at random.

TSP(Traveling Salesman Problem)

Converted from TSP instances in TSPLIB.

The first visiting city is fixed to city 1. The visiting order of remaining n-1 cities must be computed.

QAP(Quadratic Assignment Problem)

Converted from QAP instances in QAPLIB.


The positions of n Queens are encoded in an nxn bit matrix so that the bit is1 if a queen is placed.

Since N-QUEEENS is a quite easy problem, it can be solved less than 1 second.